In the English language, words can be considered as the smallest elements that have distinctive meanings. Based on their use and functions, words are categorized into several types or parts of speech. A part of speech is a category of words which have similar grammatical properties.
Many English words can belong to more than one part of speech. In certain circumstances, even words with primarily grammatical functions can be used as verbs or nouns. The process whereby a word comes to be used as a different part of speech is called conversion or zero derivation.
The parts of speech are:
Article (describes, limits)
Article is a grammatical marker of definiteness (the) or indefiniteness (a, an). The article is not always listed among the parts of speech. It is considered by some grammarians to be a type of adjective or sometimes the term ‘determiner’ (a broader class) is used.
Noun is a word denoting any abstract (abstract noun: e.g. home) or concrete entity (concrete noun: e.g. house); a person (police officer, Michael), place (coastline, London), thing (necktie, television), idea (happiness), or quality (bravery). Nouns can also be classified as count nouns or non-count nouns; some can belong to either category. The most common part of the speech; they are called naming words.
Pronoun is a substitute for a noun or noun phrase (them, he). Pronouns make sentences shorter and clearer since they replace nouns.
Adjective (describes, limits)
Adjective is a modifier of a noun or pronoun (big, brave). Adjectives make the meaning of another word (noun) more precise.
Verb (states action or being)
Verb is a word denoting an action (walk), occurrence (happen), or state of being (be). Without a verb a group of words cannot be a clause or sentence.
Adverb (describes, limits)
Adverb is a modifier of an adjective, verb, or other adverb (very, quite). Adverbs make your writing more precise.
Conjunction is a syntactic connector; links words, phrases, or clauses (and, but). Conjunctions connect words or group of words
Preposition is a word that relates words to each other in a phrase or sentence and aids in syntactic context (in, of). Prepositions show the relationship between a noun or a pronoun with another word in the sentence.
Interjection (expresses feelings and emotions)
Interjection is an emotional greeting or exclamation (Alas). Interjections express strong feelings and emotions.