Country Name Republic of India; Bharat Ganrajya
Government Type Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary system of Government
Capital New Delhi
Administrative Divisions 29 States and 7 Union Territories.
Independence 15th August 1947 (From the British Colonial Rule)
Constitution The Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950.
Legal System The Constitution of India is the fountain source of the legal system in the Country.
Executive Branch The President of India is the Head of the State, while the Prime Minister is the Head of the Government, and runs office with the support of the Council of Ministers who form the Cabinet Ministry.
Legislative Branch The Indian Legislature comprises of the Lok Sabha (House of the People) and the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) forming both the Houses of the Parliament.
Judicial Branch The Supreme Court of India is the apex body of the Indian legal system, followed by other High Courts and subordinate Courts.
National Days 26th January (Republic Day), 15th August (Independence Day), 2nd October (Gandhi Jayanti; Mahatma Gandhi’s Birthday)
National Bird Indian peacock
National Flower Lotus
National Tree Banyan Tree
National River The Ganga
National Aquatic Animal River Dolphin
National Heritage Animal Elephant
National Animal Tiger
National Fruit Mango
National Emblem Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath
National Flag Tricolor
National Anthem “Jana Gana Mana”
National Song “Vande Mataram”
National Motto “Satyameva Jayate”
National Tree of India Banyan
Flag Description The National Flag is a horizontal tricolour of deep saffron (kesaria) at the top, white in the middle, and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. At the centre of the white band is a navy blue wheel, which is a representation of the Ashoka Chakra at Sarnath.
Area 3.3 Million sq. km (32,87,263 )
Area wise in the world 7th Largest
Latitude 6°44′ and 35° 30′ north latitude
Longitude 68°7′ and 97° 25′ east longitude
Land Frontier 15,200 km
Official Language Hindi
Total Recognized Languages 22
Languages There are 22 different languages that have been recognised by the Constitution of India, of which Hindi is an Official Language. Article 343(3) empowered Parliament to provide by law for continued use of English for official purposes.
Total Coast Line 7,516.6 km
Area covered by Forest 68 million hectares
Population 1,210,193,422
Male 623.7 million
Female 586.4 million
Population Growth Rate 1.64 per cent during 2001-2011
Density of Population 370.8/km2
Population wise place in the world 2nd
Sex Ratio 940
Literacy Rate 74.04%
Male 82.14%
Female 65.46%
Largest State Rajasthan
Smallest State Goa
National Park 102
Wildlife Sanctuaries 441
Largest City Mumbai
Calling Code +91
Highest Point Mount GodwinAusten, 28,251 ft
Currency Indian Rupee
Time Zone GMT + 05:30
Life Expectancy Rate  
Male 65.8 years
Female 68.1 years
Ethnic Groups Australoid, Mongoloid, Europoid, Caucasian, and Negroid
Geography India occupies a major portion of the south Asian subcontinent.
Location The Indian peninsula is separated from mainland Asia by the Himalayas. The Country is surrounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west, and the Indian Ocean to the south.
Physical Feature The mainland consists of four well-defined regions: (i)The great mountain zone, (ii)The Indo-Gangetic plain, (iii)The desert region and (iv)The Southern Peninsula
Neighbouring Countries India shares its political borders with Pakistan and Afghanistan on the west and Bangladesh and Myanmar on the east. The northern boundary is made up of the Sinkiang province of China, Tibet, Nepal and Bhutan. India is seperated from Sri Lanka by a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and Gulf of Mannar
Climate There are four seasons which are recognised by the India Meteorological department. They are – Cold weather, hot weather, rainy season and the season of the retreating south-west monsoon. The climate of India can broadly be classified as a tropical monsoon one. But, in spite of much of the northern part of India lying beyond the tropical zone, the entire country has a tropical climate marked by relatively high temperatures and dry winters. There are four seasons:
i. winter (December-February)
ii. summer (March-June)
iii. south-west monsoon season (June-September)
iv. post monsoon season (October-November)
Fauna Approx. 89,451 species
Animals of India Tiger, Elephant, Lion, Bear, Deer, Rhinoceros, Neelgai, Chinkara, Indian flying fox, Ass
National Parks 94
Wildlife Sanctuaries 501
Natural Resources Coal, iron ore, manganese ore, mica, bauxite, petroleum, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, magnesite, limestone, arable land, dolomite, barytes, kaolin, gypsum, apatite, phosphorite, steatite, fluorite, etc.
Natural Hazards Monsoon floods, flash floods, earthquakes, droughts, and landslides.
Environment – Current Issues Air pollution control, energy conservation, solid waste management, oil and gas conservation, forest conservation, etc.
Environment – International Agreements Rio Declaration on environment and development, Cartagena Protocol on biosafety, Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on climatic change, World Trade Agreement, Helsinki Protocol to LRTAP on the reduction of sulphur emissions of nitrogen oxides or their transboundary fluxes (Nox Protocol), and Geneva Protocol to LRTAP concerning the control of emissions of volatile organic compounds or their transboundary fluxes (VOCs Protocol).
Religions According to the 2001 census, out of the total population of 1,028 million in the Country, Hindus constituted the majority with 80.5%, Muslims came second at 13.4%, followed by Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, and others.
Important Mountains Himalaya, Eastern Ghats, Western Ghats, Karakoram, Aravalli, Satpura,
Rivers The main rivers of the Himalayan group are the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.
Main Agricultural Products Rice, Wheat, Sugar Cane, Cotton, Jute, Tea, Coffee, Spices,
Major Seas of India Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean
Tourist Places Taj Mahal, Qutub Minar, Hawa Mahal, Jama Masjid, Konark Sun Temple, Sundarbans, India Gate, City palace Jaipur, Akshardham, Golkonda
Festivals of India Diwali, Holi, Rath Yatra, Kumbh Mela, Janmasthami, Muharram, Id-ul-Fitr, Good Friday, Christmas

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