Indian History: Timeline

2800 BC Indus Valley Civilization begins in the northwestern region of India
2600 BC Mohenjo­daro and Harappa phase of the Indus Valley Civilization begins, in Punjab and Sindh. Other cities like Lothal, Mehrgarh also emerged during this period.
1600 BC India is invaded by the Aryans from the west
1400 BC The Vedas, the Hindu scripture, was written
600 BC The Upanishads written
599 BC Mahavira, 24th Tirthankar of Jainism is born
563 BC Gautam Buddha, founder of Buddhism is born in Lumbini
527 BC Nirvana of Mahavira
492 BC Bimbisara dies and is succeeded by Ajatashatru in Magadha Empire
483 BC Death of Gautama Buddha in Kushinagar
326 BC Alexander the Great moved into India, King Porus who ruled parts of the Punjab, fought Alexander at the Battle of the Hydaspes River.
321 BC Chandragupta Maurya established Mauryan dynasty defeating Dhana Nanda
305 BC Chandragupta Maurya defeats Seleucus Nicator of the Seleucid Empire.
300 BC Chola dynasty establishes his kingdom over southern India with capital
269 BC Ashoka the Great, grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, becomes the emperor of India
261 BC Kalinga War takes place between Magadha Empire and the kingdom of Kalinga.
232 BC Death of King Ashoka
185 BC The Mauryan Empire, collapsed after its emperor Brihadrata was assassinated by his general Pusyamitra Sunga who then established the Sunga dynasty
50 AD Establishment of the Kushan empire by Kujula Kadphises, first Buddhist stupa is constructed at Sanchi
300 The Pallava dynasty is established in Kanchi
320 The Gupta dynasty founded by Maharaja Sri Gupta, reunited northern India initiating the “golden Age” of India
335 King Samudragupta ascends the Gupta throne and expands the empire.
380 Chandragupta II, Samudragupta’s son becomes the Gupta Emperor.
450 Invasions by the Huna.
606 Harshavardhana crowned Monarch.
712 First Muslim, Md. Bin Qasim defeats Raja Dahir
1021 Mahmud Ghazni defeats Tarnochalpal and annexes Punjab
1206 Qutb ub­din Aybak establishes the Delhi Sultanate
1221 Genghis Khan invades Punjab
1236 Razia Sultana, only lady ruler of Delhi
1290 Jalal ud­Din Firuz establishes the Khilji sultanate at Delhi
1298 Marco Polo visits India
1336 Vijayanagara Empire established by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I
1398 Timur conquered India resulting in the decline of the Delhi Sultanate
1469 Birth of Guru Nanak Dev
1497 Vasco de Gama’s first voyage from Europe to India and back (to 1499)
1526 Babur established the Mughal Empire
1555 Mughal king Humayun comes to fight Sher Shah and regains India
1556 Humayun dies, and is succeeded by Akbar
1600 Queen Elizabeth I granted a charter to the East India Company established trading posts in Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras
1605 Akbar dies, and is succeeded by his son Jehangir.
1612 British arrives India
1632 Taj Mahal construction initiated by Mughal ruler Shah Jahan
1653 Shah Jahan completes Taj Mahal. Shah Jahan dies, and is succeeded by his son Aurangzeb.
1675 Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Guru of Sikhs is executed in Delhi. Guru Gobind Singh becomes tenth Guru of Sikhs.
1680 Shivaji dies at Raigad, Sambhaji became 2nd Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire
1707 Death of Aurangzeb the Mughal emperor.
1757 In Battle of Plassey, Robert Clive, leads British forces which defeated the Mughal governor of Bengal Mir Jafar
1774 Warren Hastings appointed the first governor general of India by the East India Company
1775 First Anglo­Maratha War
1799 Death of Tipu Sultan
1853 Started Post Service
1853 First Railway established between Bombay and Thane
1857 Indian Mutiny Rebellion of 1857(10th May)
1857 Establishment of University of Mumbai, University of Madras and University of Calcutta in India
1858 The British government ruled India, Lord Dalhousie becomes the Governor­General of  India
1862 Death of Bahadur Shah Zafar
1869 “Arya Samaj” Established
1876 Queen Victoria was given the title Empress of India by the British Parliament
1885 Burma became an Indian province
1885 The Indian National Congress was formed (28th December)
1905 The British government divided Bengal into separate Hindu and Muslim sections
1909 Morley­Minto Reforms
1914 World War 1
1915 Mahatma Gandhi returns back to India
1919 Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (13th April)
1920 Mahatma Gandhi became president of Indian National Congress, Non­cooperation movement Khilafat Movement
1927 Simon Commission
1929 Central Assembly Bombed by Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt.
1930 Purna Swaraj resolution in Lahore, Salt Satyagraha started
1931 Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev Martyred (23rd March)
1935 Government of India Act
1939 World War 2 began
1940 Muhammad Ali Jinnah demanded that a new country be formed from India for the Muslims, which would be called Pakistan
1942 Quit India Movement
1942 Indian National Army Established by Subhas Chandra Bose
1945 World War II ended when United States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki (August)
1946 Royal Indian Navy Mutiny
1946 The British government agreed to grant India independence
1947 British and Indian leaders agreed to divide the country into India and Pakistan
1947 India became independent (15th August)
1948 Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated by Nathuram Godse (30th January)
1950 Constitution of India came into effect and Jawaharlal Nehru became the Indian first prime minister (26th January)

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