Types of Irrigation

This article describes about the different types of irrigation like surface, sprinkler and drip irrigation.

  1. Surface Irrigation
Application of water by gravity flow to the surface of the field.

Types of of surface irrigation – Basin, Furrow and Border

a. Basin Irrigation b. Furrow Irrigation c. Border Irrigation
Flat areas of land are surrounded by low bunds to create basins which are then flooded by water. Small channels called furrows carry water down the land slope between the crop rows. Water infiltrates into the soil as it moves along the slope. Borders are long, sloping strips of land separated by bunds. Water flows down the slope of the border, guided by the bunds on either side.
Rice is commonly irrigated this way. Row crops such as maize, sunflower, sugarcane, soybean and also crops which would get damaged by basin irrigation like tomatoes, vegetables, potatoes, beans; fruit trees such as citrus, grape etc. Close growing crops such as pasture or alfalfa
  1. Sprinkler Irrigation
Water is pumped through a pipe system and then sprayed onto the crops through rotating sprinkler heads. Not suitable for delicate crops such as lettuce.
  1. Drip Irrigation
Water is conveyed under pressure through a pipe system to the fields, where it drips slowly onto the soil through emitters or drippers which are located close to the plants. Suitable for all row crops but only high value crops are irrigated this way because of cost involved.

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